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Sweeney_bio 「ソーシャル・ヨーロッパ」に、Paul Sweeneyの「ヨーロッパ社会民主主義の崩壊」(The Collapse Of European Social Democracy)という文章が前後2回に分けて掲載されています。





The main conclusion is that, in the face of the immense power and speed of hyper-globalisation, Social Democrats sought accommodation through market-friendly policies with finance, with Multinational Corporations (MNCs) and others. They should have used the power of the state to regulate and tame this growing market power for the greater good. Their major mistake was that they de-regulated finance precisely at the time when they should have increased regulation. In the face of rapid and massive change, SDs forgot about the power of their old ally, the state. Theory was forgotten in the face of overwhelming circumstances whilst pragmatism based on dominant ideas, not philosophy, took over.


The state is the dominant actor because it sets the rules of the market, it protects the public, firms, and intellectual property.


The globalised economy would not work without states setting and enforcing the rules of the marketplace. And when states work together, they are even more effective. They do this in international rules-based organisations like the EU and WTO.


When demanded by the crash of 2008, the state demonstrated – beyond any doubt – that it can take the neccessary actions to re-regulate banks, to print money, to “do what it takes,” to bail-out the most powerful banks and the largest companies – even the US car industry – and save the economy as a whole.


However, the emphasis in recent decades has been on the protection of the firm; of privatising scientific commons by extensions and enforcement of IP laws; of corporate forays into the heart of public services in search of profits at the cost of workers and citizens; and of investor rights over the public interest.


Firms play a crucial role in the economy, but market-friendly policies went too far and need to be reined in. The relationship of the state to market has become one of subservience.


By adopting many of the policies of the conservatives, SD abandoned the dialetic between the two main opposing sides of politics. Without a clear choice, voters quit them for the apparent alternatives – the populists of left and right.


SDs must again learn to use the strong state to pursue their agenda, and cooperate internationally. If Social Democracy is to revive, it has to go back to its roots around the strong state over market, support but oversee trade, regulate financial flows and overall finance, protect the vunerable. SDs must set rules which favour citizens over corporations, deal with media ownership by promoting greater diversity, tackle climate change effectively and address immigration in humanitarian ways – thereby restoring the dialectic between it and centre-right conservatives.


The neo-liberal economic economic system of the past 30 years collapsed in 2008. But it is only being marginally reformed. Banks “too big to fail” are already bigger than then. People are disillusioned, feel unrepresented and are moving to right and left populism, which offer no solutions. What credible, clear, left political philosophy will stand as the alternative to populism or to conservative values?


Social Democrats need to return to the state, to re-valuate it, re-value it and again harness its power for all citizens to address the excesses of the market. They need to ensure that the state once more becomes dominant over the market, that delivery of all public services is world class and that the state ensures individual liberty is guaranteed.



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ヨーロッパ社会民主主義の崩壊というのは短期的に見ればトニーブレアの第三の道やドイツの社会民主党の労働改革などの結果が対象にあげられるのでしょうが、 それら社会民主主義のΓ変質」の前提にはそれらの国々が直面していた低成長、財政赤字、失業率の増大などの経済的な困難が背景にあったと思います。このような経済的な困難に対して規制を緩和することで 経済成長を実現しようとしたのではないでしょうか。 またそれがその当時のそれぞれの国々の大半の有権者が政府に求めた政策ではなかったのでしょうか?
そのような中で近年量的緩和を柱とする経済政策と社会民主主義的な政策を組み合わせた 政策が注目されていますが、それももうそろそろ時間切れになりつつあるようです。
おそらく今後益々社会民主主義者や左派は より現実的で有効な経済政策を求められると考えています。
日本においては平和運動や、 人権保護環境保護労働者保護そして再分配の強化、といった平和社会政策だけではもはや社会民主主義の 現実性はないと考えます。
結局のところリベサヨにしてもその他の恐竜にしても この社会民主主義がしっかりとした経済政策を持てないがゆえに潮流跋扈しているものと考えております。

投稿: 高橋良平 | 2018年10月21日 (日) 19時11分





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