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2011年12月18日 (日)

ILOワーキングペーパー「日本の非正規労働」

IlowpILOから、ようやく私も執筆したワーキングペーパー「'Non-regular work: Trends, labour law policy, and industrial relations developments – The case of Japan」(非正規労働:趨勢、労働法政策及び労使関係の展開-日本のケース)の冊子版が届きました。

http://www.ilo.org/ifpdial/information-resources/publications/WCMS_166735/lang--en/index.htm

>This paper is one of a series of national studies on collective bargaining, social dialogue and non-standard work conducted as a pilot under the Global Product on „Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial and employment relations‟. The national studies aim at identifying current and emerging non-standard forms of work arrangements within which workers are in need of protection; examining good practices in which those in nonstandard forms of work are organized; analyzing the role that collective bargaining and other forms of social dialogue play in improving the terms and conditions as well as the status of non-standard workers and identifying good practices in this regard.

本ペーパーは、「団体交渉と健全な労使・雇用関係の支援」というグローバルプロジェクトの下のパイロットプロジェクトとして行われた団体交渉、労使対話及び非正規労働に関する国別研究のシリーズの一巻である。この国別研究は、労働者の保護の必要のある今日の拡大しつつある非正規労働形態を明らかにし、非正規労働者が組織される好事例を検証し、団体交渉や他の形態の労使対話が非正規労働者の雇用条件や地位を改善する上で果たす役割を分析すると共にこの観点での好事例を明らかにすることが目的である。

というわけで、ワーキングペーパー自体はこちらのPDFファイルで読めます。

執筆者は、わたくしと、JILPTの荻野登さん。第1節の「Overview of recent developments in the economy and labour markets and the trends in non-regular employment」と第3節の「Non-regular employment: Industrial relations developments and good practices」が荻野さん、第2節の「Policy developments concerning non-regular employment and tripartite dialogue processes」がわたくしの担当です。

執筆に際しては、ILOに勤務されている戎居皆和さんに大変お世話になりました。

http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---dialogue/documents/publication/wcms_166735.pdf

冒頭のムーサ・ウマル労使・雇用関係課長による序文をコピペしておきます。

>Foreword

 This paper is one of a series of national studies on collective bargaining, social dialogue and non-standard work conducted as a pilot under the Global Product on „Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial and employment relations‟. The national studies aim at identifying current and emerging non-standard forms of work arrangements within which workers are in need of protection; examining good practices in which those in nonstandard forms of work are organized; analyzing the role that collective bargaining and other forms of social dialogue play in improving the terms and conditions as well as the status of non-standard workers and identifying good practices in this regard.

While ample sources are available about Japan‟s long-term employment practices, there have been very few in-depth studies undertaken, other than in Japanese, which illustrate non-regular work developments and practices. In this regard, this paper provides useful knowledge and contributes to better understanding among international readers of  the complex manner in which non-regular work arrangements are organized and used in practice, together with the ways such work forms have each evolved differently in terms of their legal, historical and cultural backgrounds.

The authors underscore that Japan‟s long-term employment practices, which are often associated with employment security and a seniority-based pay rise system, have gone hand-in-hand with the use of a wide variety of non-regular work arrangements. As they indicate, the relative stability of the former has been achieved through the use of the latter. However, they also show that in Japan‟s industrial relations, which are characterized by enterprise unionism, the majority of enterprise unions have in practice limited their membership qualifications to regular workers, thereby failing to cover large numbers of non-regular workers through enterprise-level representation. This, nevertheless, has not been seen as a significant social issue until recently, since a large proportion of the nonregular workforce traditionally comprised married women, or students who voluntarily engaged in non-regular work, according to the authors. The paper notes that since the collapse of the bubble economy in the 1990s, however, the situation has changed and a growing number of people have started involuntarily engaging in non-regular work, contrary to their wish for regular work, thereby posing a number of challenges in traditional industrial and employment systems and practices.

The paper shows that lack of effective autonomous governance by the social partners, based on collective representation and negotiation in addressing these non-regular workforce issues, has resulted in a call for a number of policy measures providing adequate legal protection for such workers. In face of the growing non-regular workforce, it emphasizes that trade unions have also been adopting different strategies in order to revitalize the labour movement, striving to organize such workers and improve their situation in different ways, albeit still limited in scope and impact. The paper underlines the importance of further advancing multiple measures and actions targeting non-regular workers, which are supported by both legislative policies and the social partners.

DIALOGUE Working Papers are intended to encourage an exchange of ideas and are not final documents. The views expressed are the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent those of the ILO. I am grateful to Keiichiro Hamaguchi and Noboru Ogino of the Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training (JILPT) for undertaking the study and commend it to all interested readers.

Moussa Oumarou
Director,
Industrial and Employment
Relations Department

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