http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2010/03/articles/eu1003049i.htm（European social partners tackle bogus self-employment in construction sector）
>The European social partners in the construction sector have issued a joint text to help tackle the prevalence of bogus self-employment in the sector – a problem which puts workers at risk as well as resulting in unfair competition in the market. They recommend actions such as establishing common European criteria on guidelines for determining the nature of workers’ employment status, and suggest creating a social security identity card that shows their employment status.
>However, they also state that bogus self-employment is a problem, often resulting from a trilateral relationship between the contractor, an intermediary (such as an agency or ‘gangmaster’) and the worker. Essentially, a gangmaster provides the contractor with workers who have a bogus self-employed status yet none of the legal, professional, financial, regulatory and administrative knowledge and skills of genuinely self-employed workers. This means that the workers are at risk as they are not adequately covered by social insurance. Moreover, unfair competition is created between genuine and bogus self-employed workers, thus distorting the market.