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2008年7月

本日100万件突破

ということで、読者の皆様のお陰でこのブログも、右上のカウンターにありますように、無事100万件を突破いたしました。心より御礼申し上げます。

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外国人専門職・技術職の雇用問題

03027484 明石書店から出版された塚崎裕子著『外国人専門職・技術職の雇用問題 -職業キャリアの観点から 』を謹呈いただきました。ありがとうございます。

http://www.bk1.jp/product/03027484

著者の塚崎裕子さんは、

>1961年東京生まれ。東京大学法学部卒業。労働省、政策研究大学院大学助教授等を経て、内閣府男女共同参画局推進課長。

というわけで、大学における私の前任に当たりますが、その後内閣府で男女共同参画関係の仕事をしながら、ライフワークとしての外国人問題に取り組んでこられました。

内容は、

>少子高齢化が進み、労働力供給も次第に抑制されていくことが見込まれる中、日本の労働市場で外国人は重要なプレイヤーとなりつつある。専門的、技術的分野の外国人の雇用の現状と課題を追究し、現実に即した政策提言を放つ。

外国人問題というと、どうしても単純労働力問題が中心になりがちですが、本当の意味での高度人材の外国人というもう一つの重要な問題領域を分析した貴重な本だと思います。

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欧州の派遣業界は労使対話に熱心です!

>Agency work industry in Europe shows its committment to social dialogue

と、欧州労働者派遣業協会が主張しています。

http://www.euro-ciett.org/index.php?id=113&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=52&tx_ttnews[backPid]=15&cHash=bd1d32fcc7

その証拠に、今回、スイスとオランダで派遣労働に関する労働協約を締結しました、と。

労使対話(ソーシャル・ダイアログ)、労使協力(ソーシャル・パートナーシップ)が錦の御旗になるヨーロッパですから、派遣業界も自分たちの正当性をこちらに求めようとするわけです。この辺がアメリカとは全く違うところですし、日本の雰囲気とも違いますね。

>New collective labour agreements signed in Switzerland and the Netherlands

The agency work industry in Europe has once again illustrated its committment to a fruitful and constructive sectoral social dialogue both at EU and national levels.

In Switzerland, a new collective labour agreement has been signed by the social partners. The agreement covers several improvements including a broader scope, covering allmost all agency work in the country, an extension of applicable minimum wages and a strengthened committment to vocational training. Further information is available on the website of the Swiss Eurociett member.

In the Netherlands, a new agreement has been signed under the overall framework CLA, which includes increases on the salaries and wages for agency workers.


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障害児の親への差別にECJ判決

本ブログで2回にわたって紹介してきた注目の事件に、去る7月17日、欧州司法裁判所が判決を下しました。障害児の親に対する差別的扱いは、それ自体が禁止される差別となります。

http://curia.europa.eu/jurisp/cgi-bin/form.pl?lang=en&newform=newform&Submit=Submit&alljur=alljur&jurcdj=jurcdj&jurtpi=jurtpi&jurtfp=jurtfp&alldocrec=alldocrec&docj=docj&docor=docor&docop=docop&docav=docav&docsom=docsom&docinf=docinf&alldocnorec=alldocnorec&docnoj=docnoj&docnoor=docnoor&typeord=ALLTYP&allcommjo=allcommjo&affint=affint&affclose=affclose&numaff=&ddatefs=&mdatefs=&ydatefs=&ddatefe=&mdatefe=&ydatefe=&nomusuel=&domaine=PSOC&mots=&resmax=100

本ブログでは、まず昨年10月、訴えがECJに付託されたという記事を紹介しました。

http://eulabourlaw.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2007/10/post_6587.html(障害児の親に対する差別)

次に、今年2月に、ECJ法務官の意見が出されたところでもう一報。

http://eulabourlaw.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2008/02/post_648e.html(障害児の親に対する差別は障害者差別か?)

そして、今回の判決になるわけです。

>1.      Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation, and, in particular, Articles 1 and 2(1) and (2)(a) thereof, must be interpreted as meaning that the prohibition of direct discrimination laid down by those provisions is not limited only to people who are themselves disabled. Where an employer treats an employee who is not himself disabled less favourably than another employee is, has been or would be treated in a comparable situation, and it is established that the less favourable treatment of that employee is based on the disability of his child, whose care is provided primarily by that employee, such treatment is contrary to the prohibition of direct discrimination laid down by Article 2(2)(a).

2.      Directive 2000/78, and, in particular, Articles 1 and 2(1) and (3) thereof, must be interpreted as meaning that the prohibition of harassment laid down by those provisions is not limited only to people who are themselves disabled. Where it is established that the unwanted conduct amounting to harassment which is suffered by an employee who is not himself disabled is related to the disability of his child, whose care is provided primarily by that employee, such conduct is contrary to the prohibition of harassment laid down by Article 2(3).

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ポストケインズ派経済学入門

41eprwrt0vl ナカニシヤ出版から発行されたマルク・ラヴォワ著、宇仁宏幸・大野隆訳の『ポストケインズ派経済学入門』を謹呈いただきました。

ナカニシヤさんのHPの紹介ページはここです。

http://211.9.219.130/modules/myalbum/photo.php?lid=466&cid=59

私の下手な言葉で紹介するよりも、こちらの方がいいと思うので、

新自由主義に対抗するポストケインズ派の理論と政策。
市場への介入と完全雇用政策を主張し、自由市場政策と新古典派経済学への体系的な代替案を提示するポストケインズ派。従来難解で知られたその理論を初学者向けに平易に解説し、その政策的インプリケーションを明らかにする画期的入門書。

「Ⅵ おわりに」より
 ケインズに触発されたポストケインズ派は、資本主義を自発性と技術革新を促進するシステムであるとみる。とくに、所得分配や、すべての社会階層への公的サービスとインフラの提供に関して、資本主義は、その欠点とその過剰を処理できる国家や民主的な制度によって支えられるならば、効率的な経済システムとなりうる。
 本書の一貫した基本的テーマの1つは、自由放任状態にある資本主義は、破壊的な競争と浪費を招くということである。すなわち、国家介入がなければ、資本主義は不安定性と景気循環を生成する。そして資本主義それ自体は、完全雇用も十分な水準の総需要のいずれも保障できない。
 新古典派経済学とは対照的に、ポストケインズ派は、この資本主義の不安定性を、競争力や競争メカニズム、もしくは価格柔軟性の欠如の結果であるとは考えない。それどころか、価格管理、慣習、(資本の自由な移動の制限といった)規制が、経済システムの安定性を強化するとポストケインズ派は信じている。

目次は:

日本語版への序文
はじめに

Ⅰ ポストケインズ派という異端
 1 誰がポストケインズ派なのか
 2 異端派経済学の特徴
 3 ポストケインズ派経済学の本質的特徴
 4 ポストケインズ派理論のさまざまな潮流

Ⅱ 異端派ミクロ経済学
 1 消費選択理論
 2 寡占的な市場と企業の諸目的
 3 費用曲線の形状
 4 価格設定
 5 費用マージンの決定要因
 6 マクロ経済理論にとっての含意

Ⅲ マクロ経済的貨幣サーキット
 1 ポストケインズ派の貨幣分析のおもな特徴
 2 民間銀行と中央銀行の関係
 3 銀行と企業の関係
 4 貨幣的経済の体系的見方

Ⅳ 短期:有効需要と労働市場
 1 有効需要とその構成
 2 カレツキ・モデル
 3 カレツキ・モデルのさらなる展開

Ⅴ 長期:古い成長モデルと新しい成長モデル
 1 古いポストケインズ派成長モデル
 2 新しいカレツキ・モデル
 3 カレツキ・モデルの拡張と批判

Ⅵ おわりに

参考文献

訳者あとがき
索引

「はじめに」の次の文章が興味をそそります。

本書は、新古典派理論とは逆の、以下の命題を論じることに全力を挙げる。

・有効需要が増加しても、必ずしも価格は上昇しない。

・最低賃金や実質賃金が増加しても、失業は拡大しない。

・実質賃金が増加しても、利潤は減少しない。

・貯蓄率が低下しても投資は減少しないし、経済成長も低下しない。

・価格の伸縮性は、産出水準の均衡(もしくは最適値)に経済を導かない。

・財政赤字は、インフレーションも利子率の増加ももたらさない。

(追記)

そのあとにはこういう言葉が続きます。

>経済的な至福を得るためには、社会が緊縮政策に耐え忍ばなければならず、しかも、自由競争で勝たねばならないという、主流派経済学が作った想定のために、多くの人が、経済学に「憂鬱な科学」というレッテルを張る。しかし、対照的に、ポストケインズ派経済学は、根本的に異なったメッセージを送る。私の観点から見ると、より積極的で心躍るメッセージである。それは、競争や対立よりもむしろ、協力がよりよい結果をもたらすというメッセージである。実際、(新古典派経済学が重視する)希少性という概念は、脇に置いておくことができる単なる知的構成物であるに過ぎない。

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雇用外一般均等指令案

去る7月2日に欧州委員会が提案した雇用労働分野以外の一般均等指令案がアップされています。

http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=477&langId=en

Proposal for a COUNCIL DIRECTIVE on implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation

です。

本指令案の対象となる差別は、題名にあるように宗教・信条、障害、年齢、性的志向です。人種・民族差別については既に2000年の指令が雇用以外分野についてもカバーしていますし、性別については2004年の指令が対象領域は縮小されていますが一応カバーしています(まあ、性別については担当部局が違うからですが)。

具体的な差別領域は3条1項に規定されています。

Within the limits of the powers conferred upon the Community, the prohibition of discrimination shall apply to all persons, as regards both the public and private sectors, including public bodies, in relation to:
(a) Social protection, including social security and healthcare;
(b) Social advantages;
(c) Education;
(d) Access to and supply of goods and other services which are available to the public, including housing.

もっとも、問題の性質上、いくつも適用除外が置かれています。

2. This Directive is without prejudice to national laws on marital or family status and
reproductive rights.

これは性的志向差別の関係ですね。ゲイを差別してはいけないといっても、だからゲイ同士の結婚を認めろと云うわけではありませんよ、と。

3. This Directive is without prejudice to the responsibilities of Member States for the content of teaching, activities and the organisation of their educational systems, including the provision of special needs education. Member States may provide for differences in treatment in access to educational institutions based on religion or belief.

これは主として宗教教育関係ですね。この辺、とりわけカトリックの強いポーランドが強硬だったところです。

4. This Directive is without prejudice to national legislation ensuring the secular nature of the State, State institutions or bodies, or education, or concerning the status and activities of churches and other organisations based on religion or belief. It is equally without prejudice to national legislation promoting equality between men and women.

セキュラーは世俗的という意味、フランスは革命以来世俗国家が国家理念ですから、イスラム教徒が学校等でスカーフを巻くのもいけないのですが、それは宗教差別じゃないよ、と。いろいろあちこちに配慮しなければなりません。

そして、いうまでもなく、

5. This Directive does not cover differences of treatment based on nationality and is without prejudice to provisions and conditions relating to the entry into and residence of third-country nationals and stateless persons in the territory of Member States, and to any treatment which arises from the legal status of the third-country nationals and stateless persons concerned.

EU市民以外の第三国人や無国籍人に対して国籍に基づいてどういう扱いをしようが、知ったこっちゃない、と。

障害者については、雇用に関する一般均等指令にもある合理的な配慮の規定が第4条でより一般的な形で設けられています。

1. In order to guarantee compliance with the principle of equal treatment in relation to persons with disabilities:
a) The measures necessary to enable persons with disabilities to have effective nondiscriminatory access to social protection, social advantages, health care, education and access to and supply of goods and services which are available to the public, including housing and transport, shall be provided by anticipation, including through appropriate modifications or adjustments. Such measures should not impose a disproportionate burden, nor require fundamental alteration of the social protection, social advantages, health care, education, or goods and services in question or require the provision of alternatives thereto.
b) Notwithstanding the obligation to ensure effective non-discriminatory access and where needed in a particular case, reasonable accommodation shall be provided unless this would impose a disproportionate burden.
2. For the purposes of assessing whether measures necessary to comply with paragraph 1 would impose a disproportionate burden, account shall be taken, in particular, of the size and resources of the organisation, its nature, the estimated cost, the life cycle of the goods and services, and the possible benefits of increased access for persons with disabilities. The burden shall not be disproportionate when it is sufficiently remedied by measures existing within the framework of the equal treatment policy of the Member State concerned.
3. This Directive shall be without prejudice to the provisions of Community law or national rules covering the accessibility of particular goods or services.

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EU労働法大量提案

本日7月2日、欧州委員会は雇用労働以外分野の差別禁止指令案、欧州労使協議会指令の改正案という二つの重要な立法提案に加えて、社会政策アジェンダの見直し案も提起しました。

まず、本ブログでも何回か動向を紹介してきた差別禁止指令案ですが、

http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?langId=en&catId=89&newsId=373&furtherNews=yes

>On the 2nd July 2008, the Commission adopted a proposal for a directive which provides for protection from discrimination on grounds of age, disability, sexual orientation and religion or belief beyond the workplace. This new directive would ensure equal treatment in the areas of social protection, including social security and health care, education and access to and supply of goods and services which are commercially available to the public, including housing. Eurobarometer surveys show that a large majority of Europeans support such legislation: 77% back measures to protect people from discrimination in education and 68% in access to goods and services.

"The right to equal treatment is fundamental, but millions of people in the EU continue to face discrimination in their everyday lives. At present, there is an inequality in Community legislation itself because people are protected from discrimination outside the workplace only on grounds of gender and race or ethnic origin. We must ensure equal treatment for all grounds," said Vladimír Špidla, Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. "The measures we propose are proportionate and reasonable; they give legal certainty to businesses and to users of goods and services while respecting the specific requirements of various sectors as well as national traditions."

The law will prohibit direct and indirect discrimination as well as harassment and victimisation. For people with disabilities, non-discrimination will involve general accessibility as well as the principle of "reasonable accommodation" which is already used in existing European legislation. It will, however, avoid imposing a disproportionate burden on service providers by taking account of the size and resources of the organisation, its nature, the estimated cost, the life cycle of the goods and services and the possible benefits of increased access for persons with disabilities. The directive will only apply to private persons in so far as they are performing their commercial activities or professional. Also, Member States will remain free to maintain measures ensuring the secular nature of the State or concerning the status and activities of religious organisations. The directive will have no effect on generally accepted practices such as discounts for senior citizens (e.g. bus fares and entrance to museums) or age restrictions on access to certain goods (e.g. alcohol for young people) on grounds of public health. To ensure effectiveness of the proposed measures, national equality bodies will give advice to victims of discrimination while civil society organisations will also have the possibility to help victims in judicial and administrative procedures.

これに併せて、「非差別と機会均等」というコミュニケーションも公表しました。

>The Communication on 'Non-discrimination and equal opportunities: A renewed commitment' sets out key areas in which further progress at EU and national level is needed, such as the fight against multiple discrimination, further raising of awareness, non-discrimination mainstreaming, positive action and data collection. It also announces the setting up of a new governmental expert group to strengthen the dialogue between Member States on non-discrimination policies. Finally, the Communication acknowledges that the situation of the Roma is characterised by persisting individual and institutional discrimination and far-reaching social exclusion.

次が欧州労使協議会指令の改正案です。

http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?langId=en&catId=89&newsId=374&furtherNews=yes

>On the 2nd of July, 2008, The European Commission adopted a legislative proposal to improve the role of European Works Councils in informing and consulting employees. European Works Councils (EWCs) currently operate in 820 major companies across the EU, covering some 14.5 million employees.

Vladimír Špidla, EU Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities said: "We need to make sure European Works Councils can play their full role in managing the process of globalisation in a balanced way and help citizens benefit from the opportunities it offers. This is one of our priorities in the context of the renewed Social Agenda."

The proposal aims to add value to European Works Councils while making employees’ transnational information and consultation rights more effective. The proposal also aims at increasing the take-up of European Works Councils while ensuring legal certainty during their set-up and the execution of their tasks.

Proposed amendments yet to be examined are aimed at:

-       Further specifying the concepts of information and consultation;

-       Defining the competences of European Works Councils and linking the national and European levels of information and consultation;

-       Adapting the fall-back rules, which are used as benchmarks in defining negotiated and adapted rules at company level;

-       Providing training for employee representatives, introducing a duty for them to report back to the workers and recognising the role of trade unions;

-       Adapting European Works Councils in the event of significant change in the structure of companies.

併せて、多国籍企業協約についての報告書も、

>The Commission also issued a new report on transnational company agreements. These are texts concluded between management and workers' representatives in companies located in several countries for which no legal framework currently exists.

The report finds that the number of these initiatives is rapidly increasing: around 150 such texts have been concluded in 90 companies covering around 7.5 million employees since 2000, on issues ranging from managing restructuring to equal opportunities, fundamental rights, training and health and safety standards.

While the Commission believes that these agreements can help anticipate and manage change in a socially responsible way, questions have been raised about their transparency, legal nature, involvement of stakeholders and dispute resolution mechanisms. The report therefore is intended as an input for an open debate on the issue with all relevant stakeholders, namely by setting up an expert group and providing supporting measures.

また、テレワーク協約の実施状況報告も、

>Meanwhile, the Commission on the 2nd of July also issued a report on a major agreement by European employers' and workers' representatives on telework – or distance working.

The agreement, signed in 2002, put in place a series of rules and guarantees both for teleworkers and employers. Six years later, the agreement has been a success: social partners in most European countries have developed rules and tools to use this new form of work to the advantage of both workers and employers.

The agreement has a real added value, as only two Member States already had a comprehensive set of rules on telework prior to the EU agreement. The key provisions of the agreement have now been implemented in 19 Member States and partially in a further two. Work will continue in the remaining six, most of which have relatively recent structures for social dialogue.

Around 8% of the European workforce reported in 2005 that they were teleworking from home for at least a quarter of their working time, while 2% do it full-time.

最後に、社会政策アジェンダの関係です。中身は色々あって、移民の子供の話もこれに含まれています。

http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?langId=en&catId=89&newsId=376&furtherNews=yes

>The Commission's new social proposals seek to boost access, opportunities and social justice.

The new "social agenda" also proposes measures to:

make medical care outside patient’s home country easier to access

strengthen the role of European works councils representing workers in large companies that operate in more than one EU country

incorporate international maritime working standards into European law.

EU economic growth has been brisk in recent years and unemployment is down, but almost one in six Europeans are living below or close to the poverty line, including around 8% of working people. And one in seven has suffered discrimination.

Europe’s social dimension has never been more relevant, says Commission president, José Manuel Barroso. “It is inseparable from the EU’s strategy to stimulate growth and provide better jobs for Europeans.”

The Commission advocates more cooperation between countries and a larger coordinating role for the EU. Social spending is relatively high in EU countries – 26% GDP, against 15% in the US and 17% in Japan. But national systems are often incompatible – they don’t work efficiently across borders and create barriers to jobs, education, housing and healthcare for certain groups.

The package coincides with a new poll showing that 49% of Europeans think life in 20 years will be worse than today, while 38% believe it will improve. A large majority expect social inequality to increase, and think it will be harder to find affordable housing and healthcare and to get a decent job, even with a good education. Most also think Europeans will earn less than today because of competition from fast-growing economies like China and India.

Alongside proposals, the package offers data and analysis on:

Europe’s Roma minority

the education of migrant children

challenges facing social services in Europe

the EU fund to support the people worst affected by globalisation

public wellbeing in the information society

European cooperation on schools.

そして、ロマ(ジプシー)の問題、

http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?langId=en&catId=89&newsId=375&furtherNews=yes

>Millions of Europeans of Roma origin are subject to persistent discrimination – both at individual and institutional level – and far-reaching social exclusion, says a new European Commission report released on 2 July 2008. But the tools exist to improve the situation if the EU, Member States and civil society join forces to effectively coordinate their efforts. The report comes as a response to the request by EU leaders in December 2007 to examine the policies and instruments available at EU level to improve Roma inclusion.

"Roma are one of the largest ethnic minorities in the EU, but too often they are Europe's forgotten citizens," said Equal Opportunities Commissioner Vladimír Špidla. "They face persistent discrimination and far-reaching social exclusion. The EU and Member States have a joint responsibility to end this situation. We have the tools to do the job – now we need to use them more effectively."

77% of Europeans are of the opinion that being Roma is a disadvantage in society, on a par with being disabled (79%).

The report concludes that there is a powerful framework of legislative, financial and policy coordination tools available and that these are increasingly used, but that there is still an implementation gap in the Member States. The EU's Structural Funds – including the European Social Fund (ESF) – and pre-accession instruments are crucial to overcoming exclusion. For example, in 2000-2006, EUR 275 million of ESF funding was devoted to projects specifically targeted at Roma, while a further EUR 1 billion was spent on vulnerable groups including Roma. The key to success is strong and effective coordination and the full involvement of civil society in the design, implementation and monitoring of EU action.

The EU has clear powers in the field of non-discrimination which it has used to legislate (equal treatment irrespective of race and ethnic origin) and to monitor the correct transposition of EU law. However, the responsibility for most central areas for Roma inclusion lies primarily with Member States (e.g. education, employment, social inclusion). In these fields the EU can only coordinate Member States' policies, and support their implementation inter alia through the Structural Funds.

The report examines the instruments – legislation, cohesion policy and non-discrimination actions (information, awareness-raising, cooperation with civil society) – and the most important policy areas for Roma inclusion – employment, social inclusion, education, public health, enlargement and gender equality. The document represents a stock-taking of existing instruments and policies, but it also identifies a number of lessons learned which allow the given framework to be used more effectively.

It complements the Commission's new policy approach to non-discrimination as a follow-up to the 2007 European Year of Equal Opportunities for All, set out in a Communication adopted   on 2 July 2008 (see IP/08/1071). Both documents will be discussed at a European Roma Summit to take place in Brussels on 16 September 2008.

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